March 03, 1980. However, he ran in the federal election held a year later, and was elected to Parliament as the MP for Rocky Mountain, a largely rural riding in southwestern Alberta. “How We Lead” by Joe Clark is a decent read. ", giving Clark a nickname that stuck for years. In his first year at the University of Alberta, Clark joined the staff of the campus newspaper Gateway and eventually became editor-in-chief. In 1973, Clark married law student Maureen McTeer. As a former prime minister, Clark is entitled to carry "The Right Honourable" designation for life. He improved his party's standing in national opinion polls. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). When the Prince met Clark in the receiving line at the function, he asked to Clark: "why wasn't two thirds enough? Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.  Finance Minister John Crosbie touted the budget as "short term pain for long term gain". His tenure was brief as he only won a minority government, and it was defeated on a motion of non-confidence. He later wrote How We Lead: Canada in a Century of Change (2013). Social Credit was below the 12 seats needed for official party status in the House of Commons. . In 1998 Clark was again elected leader of the Progressive Conservatives, and in 2000 he won a seat in the House of Commons. As other Red Tory candidates were eliminated during the first four ballots, Clark gradually overtook Mulroney and then Wagner to emerge as the victor on the fourth ballot, by 1,187 votes to 1,122. Taking office the day before his 40th birthday, Clark is the youngest person to become Prime Minister. Though the election had been held in May, Parliament did not resume sitting until October, one of the longest break periods in Confederation. The party lost seats to the Liberals, though it managed to hang onto the minimum 12 seats necessary to be recognized in the House of Commons as an official party and therefore qualify for research funding, committee memberships, and minimum speaking privileges. The Mulroney campaign responded by continuing their pro-business line.  Clark was convinced that he could win another leadership race and gain a clear level of support, once his qualities were compared against the handful of politically inexperienced challengers who coveted his position and who were covertly undermining his leadership. , Following the resignation of PC party leader Robert Stanfield, Clark sought and won the leadership of the PC Party at the 1976 leadership convention. The son of Grace (nee Welch) and Charles Clark, a newspaper editor, Joe Clark was educated at the University of Alberta in Edmontonwhere he received a BA in history and later an MA in political science. The Liberals lost 27 seats, including several high-profile cabinet ministers, and Trudeau announced his intention to step down as party leader. The youngest prime minister in Canadian history, Joe Clark, then leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, was elected in 1979 at the age of 39. Clark however decided that he would govern as if he had a majority, and refused to grant the small Socred official party status, form a coalition, or co-operate with the party in any way. . 2012. The Canadian government of Prime Minister Joe Clark was toppled unexpectedly last night over its belt-tightening budget that included an 18 cents per gallon increase in the gasoline tax. UN. The youngest person to become Prime Minister was Joe Clark, who took office one day before his 40th birthday. When Clark undertook a tour of the Middle East in order to show his ability to handle foreign affairs issues, his luggage was lost, and Clark appeared to be uncomfortable with the issues being discussed. Joe Clark has received honorary degrees from several institutions: Bold indicates parties with members elected to the House of Commons. Clark was unable to accomplish much in office because of the tenuous situation of his minority government. Trudeau had put off asking the Canadian Governor General to call an election as long as possible, in the hope that his party could recover popular support but it backfired, as there was growing public antipathy towards his perceived arrogance. His citation reads:. He is a member of the Alberta Order of Excellence. However, he faced a difficult task, with critics and opponents attacking him and the PC Party as a "vote for the past". With Quebec's constitutional status within Canada a rising issue, he shifted to become the Minister responsible for Constitutional Affairs. However, he spent more time with the Dalhousie Student Union, Progressive Conservative politics and the Dalhousie Gazette, than on his courses. in political science (1973) from the University of Alberta and taught political science there from 1965 to 1967. He made a political comeback in 1998 to lead the Progressive Conservatives in their last stand before the party's eventual dissolution, serving his final term in Parliament from 2000 to 2004. , Overall, Clark's efforts to rebuild the PC party had mixed results. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. . The points for each riding were then assigned on the basis of each candidate's share of votes within each riding association. The prime minister’s total compensation consists of a MP’s salary of CA$178,900,the prime minister’s salary of $178,900, and the prime minister car allowance of $2,000. Jock Osler, a former journalist, radio personality and press secretary under Prime Minister Joe Clark, has died at 83. That incident was widely lampooned by Toronto Sun cartoonist Andy Donato.  This was also considering that the governing Liberals under Pierre Trudeau were slipping in polls, and although the PCs had built up a substantial lead in popularity, Trudeau was expected to retire before the election and a new Liberal leader could have been able to pull off a victory. He soon realized that there was no chance of dislodging the Liberals as long as the centre-right remained split. Clark had always encouraged MacKay to keep Orchard and his followers within the PC camp. ), Clark immediately nominated to keep his leader's post, and retained support from most of the Red Tories and other party members who were opposed to the public attacks on his leadership by others in the party. Joe Clark, Canada’s 16th prime minister, is one of seven Canadian PMs who have planted ceremonial trees over the years at the Kingston home of Arthur Milnes and Alison Bogle. , In a rematch of the 1976 convention, Mulroney emerged as the main challenger, gaining the support of the party's right wing, which viewed Clark as too progressive and opposed his continued leadership. Clark feared that the 34% of PC members who did not support him would become his most vocal critics in the upcoming election campaign, and that his continued leadership would have led to fractures in the party. He is also a member of Washington D.C. based think tank the Inter-American Dialogue..  The gas tax in the budget soured Clark's relationship with Ontario Premier Bill Davis, even though both were Red Tories. Joe Clark was sworn in as the youngest prime minister ever. Over the course of his long career, he has become one of the most highly regarded ambassadors of Canadian values throughout the international community. Fellow Tory MP Stanley Schumacher had much of his old riding of Palliser merged into Bow River as well. Recovery is when Pierre Trudeau loses his job. He benefited when live television came to the House of Commons in 1977, allowing viewers to see that he was evolving into a real rival for Trudeau. A Joe Clark snapshot. However, historians have credited Clark's government with making access to information legislation a priority. (In December 2007, German-Canadian businessman and lobbyist Karlheinz Schreiber told the House of Commons Ethics Committee that he and other Germans, including Bavarian politician Franz Josef Strauss, and Austrian-Canadian entrepreneur Walter Wolf, had contributed significant funds to finance Quebec delegates to vote against Clark at Winnipeg, denying him the mandate he sought. May, who resigned in 2019 amid turmoil over Brexit, has been critical of … Initially, the favourite among Red Tories was Flora MacDonald; however she did worse than expected while Clark placed a surprising third in a field of eleven on the first ballot of convention delegates, behind only Claude Wagner and Brian Mulroney. John Turner was a Prime Minister in waiting for too long. In 1967 he directed the campaign organization that brought Peter Lougheed to power as premier of Alberta, and from 1967 to 1970 he served as executive assistant to Robert Stanfield, then the Conservative leader in the House of Commons. Clark ran on his previous experience as Prime Minister and External Affairs Minister. Joe Clark, byname of Charles Joseph Clark, (born June 5, 1939, High River, Alberta, Canada), Canadian politician who served as prime minister of Canada from June 1979 to March 1980, the youngest person ever to win the post. A leader must be a leader." The PC Party's membership had also dropped from 100,000 in 1998 to 45,000 card carrying PCs in May 2003. Many delegates were offended by his expensive leadership campaign. Joe Clark nabbed the all-around win for his time in office (which, notably, was nine months long so keep that in mind), seeing job growth in Canada rise by 3.7%. Laimdota Straujuma, Prime Minister of Latvia (2014-2016) Laura Chinchilla Miranda, President of Costa Rica (2010-2014) Mari Kiviniemi, Prime Minister of Finland (2010-2011) Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca, President of Malta (2014-2019) Mary Robinson, President of Ireland (1990-1997) Paula Cox, Premier of Bermuda (2010-2012) The five Socred MPs had demanded the gas tax revenues be allocated to Quebec and abstained when Clark turned them down. In a federal election, the Liberals returned to power, winning 147 seats to the Conservatives' 103. Even before the budget, the government was criticized for its perceived inexperience, such as in its handling of its campaign commitment to move Canada's embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Clark worked very hard, and gradually earned the respect of most people, including his own caucus, by presenting a series of well thought out speeches and questions in Parliament. Omissions? He got his chance in 2001, when several dissident Alliance MPs, the most prominent one being Alliance deputy leader and party matriarch Deborah Grey, left the Alliance caucus. An ISO 9001:2018 Certified Public Limited Company. Many political observers and analysts have questioned Clark's rationale for the decision.  Clark sparred with future political rival Preston Manning in debate forums on campus between the Young PCs and the Youth League of the Alberta Social Credit Party. This lasted until 2002, when Stephen Harper ousted Day as Alliance leader. Within days the minority Conservative government was unseated; the legislation died on the order paper. In 2006 Clark became a professor at the Centre for Developing-Area Studies at McGill University. Over the course of his long career, he has become one of the most highly regarded ambassadors of Canadian values throughout the international community. He was editor of the student newspaper, The Gateway, and was also national Progressive Conservative (PC) student president. Some PC caucus members refused to accept the merger: long-time MP and former Prime Minister Joe Clark continued to sit as a "Progressive Conservative" for the remainder of the Parliament, as did MPs John Herron and André Bachand, while Scott Brison left the new party to join the Liberal Party in December 2003. For example, in the lead-up to the 1979 election, the bulk of Clark's riding was merged into the newly created riding of Bow River during a redistribution of ridings. By late 1982, Joe Clark's leadership of the Progressive Conservatives was being questioned in many party circles and among many Tory members of Parliament, despite his solid national lead over Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in opinion polls, which stretched to 19 percent in summer 1982. It was widely seen as being the failure of the Charlottetown and prior Meech Lake accords that had caused it to be so close. On December 8, 2003, the day that the PC Party and the Canadian Alliance were dissolved and the new Conservative Party of Canada registered, Clark was one of three MPs—the other two were André Bachand and John Herron—to announce that they would not join the new caucus. During his time at the university, Clark pursued his two interests of journalism and politics. Citing this, Clark announced his intention to step down as PC leader on August 6, 2002, at the PC Party's Edmonton policy convention.  Trudeau swept the Liberals back into power in the February 1980 election with 147 seats, against 103 for the Progressive Conservatives. Clark obtained a B.A. The Toronto Star announced Clark's victory with a headline that read "Joe Who? During the same tour, while inspecting a military honour guard, Clark turned too soon and nearly bumped into a soldier's bayonet; one of the first major media reports on the incident claimed, with some exaggeration, that he had nearly been beheaded. Clark will travel to Algeria, Bahrain, Qatar and Egypt from March 2–9 seeking votes. The Tories under Clark win a minority, giving Canada its youngest prime minister in history. Joe Clark, 80, served as the 16th prime minister of Canada between 1979 and 1980. While Clark's 1976 leadership rivals were prominent in that province, Claude Wagner had left politics (he died shortly after the election), while Brian Mulroney was still bitter about his loss and turned down an offer to serve under Clark. Clark’s death was announced by his family, who said he died on Tuesday after a long illness.. Clark was the principal of Eastside High School in Paterson, N.J. from 1983 to 1989. The Liberal Party had regained national prominence by leading the "No" side to victory in the 1980 Quebec referendum and the Constitution patriation. in history (1960) and an M.A. Despite his relative inexperience, Clark rose quickly in federal politics, entering the House of Commons in the 1972 election and winning the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1976. The only person to become prime minister younger than Justin Trudeau was Joe Clark. Serving the shortest term of any elected prime minister, Clark barely accomplished anything in office before he was promptly thrown back out. He made a number of political gaffes, including calling an early … Jean Chrétien's governing Liberals were running on their successful economic record, and they were poised to regain the support that they lost in 1997, threatening the PC's 1997 gains in Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic provinces. Along with Arthur Meighen, Clark is one of two former Prime Ministers who have returned to prominent roles in Parliament. Prime minister from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. Several candidates agreed to an "ABC" (Anybody But Clark) strategy for the convention and when news of that back-room deal broke out, support was expected to rally around the party's embattled leader. Clark sustained a bloody nose but was not seriously hurt. UN. in political science (1973) from the University of Alberta and taught political science there from 1965 to 1967. Clark defeated Hugh Segal, free-trade opponent David Orchard, former Manitoba cabinet minister Brian Pallister, and future Senator Michael Fortier for the leadership of the PC Party.. His vision for the party was one that was to the left of the Alliance, but to the right of the Liberals. Davis' criticism of the gas tax was used in the Liberals' Ontario television ads. , Clark's government would last a total of nine months less a day. Clark's campaign countered this by trying to polarize the election between right wingers and a centrist who had been able to win before. Former PM Joe Clark has been appointed as the Prime Minister’s Special Envoy for Canada’s bid for a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council. . Joe Clark nabbed the all-around win for his time in office (which, notably, was nine months long so keep that in mind), seeing job growth in Canada rise by 3.7%.  He then worked full-time for the Progressive Conservative Party.  However, Mulroney and John Crosbie had been laying the groundwork for a campaign for some time, with Crosbie expecting Clark to lose or resign soon, and Mulroney supportive of the anti-Clark movement. Clark chose the following jurist to be appointed as a justice of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General: Trudeau commented in his memoirs, published in 1993, that Clark was much more tough and aggressive than past Tory leader Robert Stanfield, noting that those qualities served Clark well in his party winning the 1979 election victory. Clark managed to lure Socred MP Richard Janelle to the government caucus, but this still left the Tories five seats short of a majority. In picking his cabinet, Joe Clark revealed what had only been hinted at before: that he might just fool us all and become a shrewd prime minister unintimi-dated by tradition—a pragmatist who stops just this side of opportunism. , Clark was criticized for his "inability to do math" in failing to predict the outcome, not only because he was in a minority situation, but also because three members of his caucus would be absent for the crucial budget vote. While Trudeau's National Energy Program was hugely unpopular in Western Canada, especially Alberta, it was able to shore up Liberal support in the voter-rich Eastern Canada, particularly Ontario and Quebec, generally having the opposite effect of Clark's proposed gas tax. Clark continually promoted the idea that the PCs would eventually retake Ontario and form a federal government again. This is common practice when a newly elected party leader does not already have a seat in Parliament. University of California, Berkeley Canadian Studies Program. Clark began a one-week trip Monday as "special envoy" to Algeria, Bahrain, Qatar and Egypt to campaign for Canada's bid for a temporary two … By late 1982, Joe Clark's leadership of the Progressive Conservatives was being questioned in many party circles and among many Tory members of Parliament, despite his solid national lead over Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in opinion polls, which stretched to 19 percent in summer 1982. The legislation was debated at second reading at the end of November 1979 and was referred to the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs. , Clark, who won the Tory leadership at age 36, remains the youngest-ever leader of a major federal party in the history of Canadian politics. Clark will travel to Algeria, Bahrain, Qatar and Egypt from March 2–9 seeking votes. In a 1999 survey of Canadian historians Clark was ranked No. , Clark spent time in France to improve his fluency in the French language, and also took courses in French while he was living in Ottawa. He returned to prominence in 1984 as a senior cabinet minister in Brian Mulroney's cabinet, retiring from politics after not standing for re-election for the House of Commons in 1993. At the January 1983 convention in Winnipeg, 33.1% supported a review. Two by-election victories later in 2002 increased the PC caucus to 15 members and fourth place in the Commons. MacKay immediately reversed his position on seeking a merger, and in 2003, 90% of PC Party delegates voted in favor of a merger with the Canadian Alliance. Elections and Prime Ministers . He maintained Canada's independent voice politically and socially at a time of increasing economic integration with the US and the rise of more socially conservative right-wing politics there. , In March 2020, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appointed Clark special envoy for Canada's bid for a UN Security Council seat. Clark was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada on October 19, 1994. The Access to Information Act received royal assent in July 1982 and came into force in July 1983. His appointments color his cabinet blue with a pink tinge. In September 2019, Clark, along with former prime minister Jean Chretien, represented Canada at the United Nations General Assembly after the Trudeau government chose to pass on the event due to the October election. Former Prime Minister Joe Clark is seen during a photo op in Ottawa on November 6, 2017.  Compared to his predecessor as Prime Minister, Clark reportedly had a better relationship with US President Jimmy Carter, who phoned Clark to wish him luck in the upcoming 1980 election. OTTAWA — Former prime minister and foreign minister Joe Clark faces a tough slog during his travels to the Persian Gulf and Africa to campaign for Canada's bid for the United Nations Security Council, analysts said Monday. Media coverage emphasized the pro-business and neo-liberal bent of most of the candidates as a "Changing of the Guard" within the PC party from their more classical conservative and moderate elements. How much does Justin Trudeau make as prime minister? Opposition to Clark's leadership began to grow after the fall of the PC minority government, and the party's defeat by a resurgent Liberal Party. However, he wanted a merger on his terms. He serves with the Jimmy Carter Center, routinely travelling overseas as part of the centre's international observing activities.  However, Clark was unable to stay on as Progressive Conservative leader long enough to regain the Prime Ministership. Canada's sixteenth and youngest Prime Minister, he served with distinction as Secretary of State for External Affairs, President of the Privy Council and Minister responsible for Constitutional Affairs. Clark urged his supporters to leave the convention united behind Mulroney, and agreed to serve under him. What milestone birthday gift do you get for the former prime minister who has everything? With many veteran Tories having been defeated in the 1968 election, the party effectively skipped a generation by selecting Clark as its new leader.. The oldest person to become Prime Minister was Charles Tupper at the age of 74 years, 304 days. Clark was attacked while walking down the street in Montreal in mid-November 2007. A depression is when you lose your job. ... when Joe Clark … The 1995 Quebec referendum saw the federal side win by less than one percent of the vote. Jock Osler, a former journalist, radio personality and press secretary under Prime Minister Joe Clark, has died at 83. He was 82. The only person to become prime minister younger than Justin Trudeau was Joe Clark. "African leaders with long memories will recall the important role Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney played in the Commonwealth in helping to bring an end to apartheid in South Africa and also stepping up to the plate in the Ethiopian famine crisis," said Hampson. Despite Clark being bilingual, the Tories were unable to make much headway in Quebec, which continued to be federally dominated by the Liberals. , Joe Clark is vice-chairman and a Member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization that works to support democratic leadership, prevent and resolve conflict through mediation and promote good governance in the form of democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law.  When Mulroney took over the reins of the Progressive Conservatives, Trudeau's Liberals attacked them with the slogan "Bring back Joe! Harper wanted a closer union with the PCs, but Clark turned the offer down in April 2002, and all but two of the DRC members rejoined the Alliance. Joe Clark hits the campaign trail Conservative Joe Clark campaigns in Toronto in the 1979 election. Joe Clark, 80, served as the 16th prime minister of Canada between 1979 and 1980. Updates? , Clark attended local schools and the University of Alberta, where he earned a bachelor's degree in history (1960) and a master's degree in political science (1973). ", List of books about Prime Ministers of Canada, Joe Clark – Parliament of Canada biography, Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons, Leaders of the Official Opposition in Canada, Ministers of Justice and Attorneys General, Ministers of National Defence for Naval Services, The referendum on the Charlottetown Accord, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joe_Clark&oldid=1001256038, Canadian Secretaries of State for External Affairs, Members of the Alberta Order of Excellence, Members of the House of Commons of Canada from Alberta, Members of the House of Commons of Canada from Nova Scotia, Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, BLP articles lacking sources from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, convincing Mulroney to recommend the appointment of, taking a strong stand against American intervention in, managing nonetheless to maintain extremely strong ties with the US, helping steer the, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 22:26. Not to mention that there are long-standing ties between him and former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. It took two years for Clark to return to Parliament. He also holds the Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal (1977), 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal (1992), Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal (2002), Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal (2012) and the Alberta Centennial Medal (2005). "[nb 1], Large budget deficits, high inflation, and high unemployment made the Liberal government unpopular. The Honourable François-Philippe Champagne, Minister of Foreign Affairs, today announced that the Prime Minister’s Special Envoy for Canada’s bid for a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council, The Right Honourable Joe Clark, P.C., C.C., will travel to Algeria, Bahrain, Qatar and Egypt from March 2–9. The youngest prime minister in Canadian history, Joe Clark, then leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, was elected in 1979 at the age of 39. Prime Minister Joe Clark meets with Ken Taylor, the Canadian ambassador to Iran, on Feb. 1, 1980. The attacker first asked him if he was the former prime minister, and when Clark answered that he was, the man struck him and fled. He stepped down as party leader in 2003, and the following year he resigned from the legislature.  This book was also published in a French translation. Even though Clark was now party leader, Schumacher refused to step aside in Clark's favour, forcing Clark to run in nearby Yellowhead. Joe Clark, the New Jersey principal who inspired the 1989 film “Lean on Me” starring Morgan Freeman, has died. But when it comes to achievements after leaving the Prime Minister’s Office, Clark is a giant without equal. The DRC quickly entered a coalition with the Progressive Conservatives. Mulroney, who was endorsed by all but two candidates, defeated Clark on the fourth ballot.  Their daughter, Catherine has pursued a career in public relations and broadcasting. Also in 1994, he wrote the book A Nation Too Good to Lose: Renewing the Purpose of Canada. At the same time, the party was still $10 million in debt from the 2000 election. Clark played into their hands by appearing bumbling and unsure in public.  Though Clark had hoped this change in policy would work to his advantage, it actually earned him widespread animosity as a politician who could not keep his promises, even in such a short period. Clark then attended Dalhousie Law School. It is progressive without being radical. Taylor sheltered six Americans and helped them escape Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. …May 1979 Progressive Conservative leader. He served as president of the University of Alberta Young Progressive Conservatives, and eventually served as national president for the Young PCs group. MME Limited . Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. However, they were only able to win two seats in Quebec, leaving them six seats short of a majority. Joe Clark was prime minister for about nine months. He gave a tepid endorsement to the Liberal Party in the 2004 election, calling Paul Martin "the devil we know".  The Tories lost 19 seats in that province, which ultimately proved to be decisive in the campaign. Clark was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. "The Wilson Center and its Canada Institute are committed to … A November Gallup poll published eight days before the December 11 budget reported that their popularity was down from 36% during the summer to 28%, with the party 19 points behind the Liberals, giving the latter the popular support to initiate the non-confidence motion. Learn how and when to remove this template message, leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party, University of British Columbia Faculty of Law, President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, Quebec's constitutional status within Canada, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Centre for International Governance Innovation, 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal, "The Access to Information Act: 10 years on – The Information Commissioner of Canada, 1994", "House of Commons Journals, 31st Parliament, 1st Session", "Terrorism and Multiculturalism in the West", http://canada.berkeley.edu/CAN%20history%20pamphlet%20continuous%20text.pdf#page=3, "David Orchard spouts anti-U.S. rhetoric and racists sentiments", "Joe Clark says he'd choose Martin over Harper", "IBG – Joe Clark, The Centre for International Governance Innovation", "Trudeau appoints former PM Joe Clark as special envoy for Canada's bid for UN Security Council seat", "Order of Canada – Charles Joseph Clark, P.C., C.C., A.O.E., M.A., LL.D. 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Quebec referendum saw the federal side win by less than one percent of the United Nations for from... Campaigns Back to video Overall, Clark is one of two former prime minister Canada!
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